In this post I will show how very easy it is to create an electric motor.
Using only a wire, a battery, GeoMags and neodymium magnets – and you can build the smallest electric motor in the world yourself.
This simplest electric motor is also known under the name Monopolar or unipolar engine and in the English under Homopolar motor.
The version shown here is my own design and just one of many on the net – I thought it would be fun to use the GeoMags since they have strong neodymium (rare earth magnets).
What is needed to build the Homopolor motor?
- A battery of size 1.5V AA or 3V CR123
- A 7 cm long copper installation cable from Home Depot
- A neodymium Magnet(s)
Build the electric motor yourself?
Take the cable and remove the insulation completely. Then take the neodymium magnet, put it on the GeoMags and turn it with the tip to the negative pole – this is the flat side – of the battery. Then hold one end of the cable to the positive pole of the battery, the other end to the side of the neodymium magnet and observe how the wire rotates.
Theory – What happened?
The wire creates a short circuit in the battery, so that high currents flow through the wire and the magnet. The electrons are exposed to the strong magnetic field of the neodymium magnet in this way. However, charged particles such as electrons are deflected in a magnetic field. The power that works here is called Lorentz force.
To determine their direction, use the so-called three-finger rule (see graph – The arrows are perpendicular to each other). Since Newtons law states there is no force without a force, the wire is moved in rotation.
Neodymium magnets are the strongest known magnets. They are made of neodymium, a rare earth metal, iron and boron.
Attention: Neodymium magnets are not children’s toys! If you bring them near magnetic data stores such as USB sticks, credit cards or digital cameras, data can be deleted. Depending on the size of the magnet, bruising and other injuries may occur.
Thus, neodymium magnets can also splinter if they meet with great force.
This phenomenon can be observed in everyday life with every electric motor, electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.